Also in 1940 he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Saarinen’s first independent work, one that brought immediate renown, was the vast General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. When the committee sent out the letter stating Saarinen had won the competition, it was mistakenly addressed to his father. Education & Culture. A titan of midcentury American design, Eero Saarinen helped define the course of modern architecture. The Classics Saarinen Collection. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Boston Arts festival in 1953 gave him their Grand Architectural Award. Eero Saarinen was, along with Louis Kahn, one of the two great European emigres who would become titans of midcentury American architecture. With the success of this project, Saarinen was then invited by other major American corporations such as John Deere, IBM, and CBS to design their new headquarters or other major corporate buildings. Like many contemporary architects, Saarinen was challenged by furniture design, especially the chair, which presents aesthetical and structural problems that are particularly difficult to solve. He had a close relationship with fellow students Charles and Ray Eames, and became good friends with Florence Knoll (née Schust). After his father's death in July 1950, Saarinen founded his own architect's office, Eero Saarinen and Associates. The Finnish designer Eero Aarnio (b.1932) is one of the great innovators of modern furniture design. Unfortunately, the design was never executed. Eero Saari­nen was born on Au­gust 20, 1910, to Finnish ar­chi­tect Eliel Saari­nen and his sec­ond wife, Louise, on his fa­ther's 37th birthday. Always immersed in architecture, he had no other real interest. • Eero saarinen’s design of Dulles Airport was centred on how architecture could facilitate the travel experience of the passenger in the new age of jet travel. For the design of the TWA terminal, Saarinen continued exploration of interior and exterior sculptural effects. Finding aid for the Eero Saarinen collection, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eero_Saarinen&oldid=1002329307, Modernist architects from the United States, Fellows of the American Institute of Architects, Alumni of the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, People from Uusimaa Province (Grand Duchy of Finland), Naturalized citizens of the United States, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2016, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Eero Saarinen's church, bank, and Miller House in, This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 22:39. In questioning the presuppositions of early modern architecture, he introduced sculptural forms that were rich in architectural character and visual drama unknown in earlier years. In 1948, he won the first prize in the Jefferson National Monument competition. A son, Eames, was born later that year. North Christian Church, Columbus, Indiana, designed by Eero Saarinen, 1964. He was in Ann Arbor, Michigan, overseeing the completion of a new music building for the University of Michigan School of Music, Theatre & Dance. Despite the overall rational design philosophy, the interiors usually contained dramatic sweeping staircases as well as furniture designed by Saarinen, such as the Pedestal series. Saarinen’s effort was primarily concerned with institutional buildings for education and industry. In 1953 Saarinen began to design the Kresge Auditorium and chapel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, choosing the basic forms of an eighth of a sphere for the auditorium and a cylinder for the chapel. [3] He had a close relationship with fellow students Charles and Ray Eames, and became good friends with Florence Knoll (née Schust). Eliel Saarinen, in full Eliel Gottlieb Saarinen, (born August 20, 1873, Rantasalmi, Finland—died July 1, 1950, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, U.S.), one of the foremost architects and urban planners of his generation in Finland before moving to the United States, where he influenced modern architecture, particularly skyscraper and church design. Saarinen worked with his father, mother, and sister designing elements of the Cranbrook campus in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, including the Cranbrook School, Kingswood School, the Cranbrook Art Academy, and the Cranbrook Science Institute. including a major exhibition and several books. At Yale, young Saarinen won a traveling fellowship that made possible a leisurely European visit in 1934–35. [22][23], Saarinen died on September 1, 1961, at the age of 51 while undergoing an operation for a brain tumor. This is partly because the Roche and Dinkeloo office has donated its Saarinen archives to Yale University, but also because Saarinen's oeuvre can be said to fit in with present-day concerns about pluralism of styles. [4] He then went on to study at the Yale School of Architecture, completing his studies in 1934. [11] The plan was never built but was useful in attracting donors. The auditorium is arranged entirely within this dramatically simple form. The Saarinen family of four, including a sister, Eva-Lisa, moved to the United States in 1923, where they settled first in Evanston, Illinois, and then in Ann Arbor, Michigan. [12][page needed], Eero Saarinen was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1952. He grew up in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, where his father taught and was dean of the Cranbrook Academy of Art, and he took courses in sculpture and furniture design there. Ingalls Hockey Rink, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, designed by Eero Saarinen, 1953–58. [20], Saarinen became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1940. He largely initiated a trend, however, toward exploration and experiment in design—a trend that departed from the doctrinaire rectangular prisms that were characteristic of the earlier phase of modern architecture. He never wrote a book, and he commented only occasionally on his buildings and architectural philosophy. Omissions? By the time he was in his teens, Eero was helping his father design furniture and fixtures for the Cranbrook campus. Saarinen served on the jury for the Sydney Opera House commission in 1957 and was crucial in the selection of the now internationally known design by Jørn Utzon. Saarinen is known for designing the Washington Dulles International Airport outside Washington, D.C., the TWA Flight Center in New York City, and the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri. Here Saarinen arranged five major building complexes, each for a different research study, around a 22-acre (9-hectare) reflecting pool. It conveys a sense of ceremony and special place yet also one of delight and ease, qualities that are present in all of Saarinen’s works, whatever their function. Saarinen married Lillian Swann, a sculptor, in 1939, and they had two children, Eric and Susan. [12][page needed] Scully also criticized him for designing buildings that were "packages", with "no connection with human use ... at once cruelly inhuman and trivial, as if they had been designed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff". Eero was the son of the noted architect Eliel Saarinen and Loja Gesellius, a textile designer and sculptor. All of these designs were highly successful except for the Grasshopper lounge chair, which, although in production through 1965, was not a big success. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 1948 Saarinen created a womblike chair using a glass fibre shell upholstered in foam rubber and fabric. The partial sphere is a “handkerchief ” dome resting on three points. [32] The exhibition was accompanied by the book Eero Saarinen: Shaping the Future. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This lecture will discuss the education of Eero Saarinen at Yale, and the architect’s return to New Haven in the 1950s to design Ingalls Hockey Rink, Samuel Morse and Ezra Stiles Colleges, and to serve as the university’s campus planner. Many of these projects use catenary curves in their structural designs. In 1945 Eero joined a partnership with Eliel Saarinen and J. Robert F. Swanson that had been organized in 1939. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Based on a symmetrical plan, two major cantilevered concrete shells extend dramatically outward, suggesting wings, and, on the inside, sculptural supports and curving stairways evoke a feeling of movement. The first major work by Saarinen, in collaboration with his father, was the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan, which follows the rationalist design Miesian style, incorporating steel and glass but with the addition of accent of panels in two shades of blue. He started studying sculpture in France’s Académie de la Grande Chaumière in 1929. In 1940 Eero and his father designed Crow Island School in Winnetka, Illinois, which influenced postwar school design, being a one-story structure generously extended in plan and suitably scaled for primary-grade children. That same year Saarinen married Aline Bernstein Louchheim, an art critic at The New York Times, with whom he had a son, Eames, named after Saarinen's collaborator Charles Eames. Eero Saarinen worked with his father for many years (1938 to 1950) and owes a lot of his initial knowledge about architecture to his upbringing, but he didn't stay in his father's shadow for long. In 1929 Eero studied sculpture at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris, but, as he recounted years later, “it never occurred to me to do anything but follow in my father’s footsteps.” Between 1931 and 1934 he studied architecture at Yale University, where the curriculum was untouched by modern theories. Both were completed in 1955. His father, Eliel Saarinen (1873-1950), was also an architect and the founding director of the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan. Eero Saarinen: Shaping the Future is organized by the Finnish Cultural Institute in New York, The Museum of Finnish Architecture, Helsinki, and the National Building Museum, Washington, D.C., with the support of the Yale University School of Architecture. The firm was located in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, until 1961 when the practice was moved to Hamden, Connecticut. He was the principal partner from 1950 until his death. your own Pins on Pinterest Eero Saarinen, son of architect Eliel Saarinen, pioneered the concept of the corporate campus when he designed the 25-building General Motors Technical Center on the outskirts of Detroit. Another thin-shell structure is Yale's Ingalls Rink, which has suspension cables connected to a single concrete backbone and is nicknamed "the whale". While to some it proclaimed virtuosity over logic, Saarinen believed that “we must have an emotional reason as well as a logical end for everything we do.” Later Saarinen designed Dulles International Airport (1958–62), outside Washington, D.C., with a hanging roof suspended from diagonal supports. The son of famous Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen, Eero Saarinen grew up in Michigan where his father served as the dean of the Cranbrook Academy of Art. Saarinen was recruited by Donal McLaughlin, an architectural school friend from his Yale days, to join the military service in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). In 1956 two such works were initiated that can be considered representative: Ingalls Hockey Rink at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut (1958), and the Trans World Airlines (TWA) terminal at John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York City (1956–62). [12][page needed] There has been a surge of interest in Saarinen's work in recent years,[when?] His now iconic plastic creations include the Ball (1963), the Pastil (1968), and the Bubble (1968) chairs which echo… Designed by Eliel Saarinen’s son Eero, the General Motors Technical Center (1948–56) at Warren, Michigan, was compared with Versailles in its extent, grandeur, and rigorous conformity to an austere, geometric aesthetic of Miesian forms. In the 11 years that he survived his father, Saarinen’s own work included a series of dramatically different designs that displayed a richer and more diverse vocabulary. Apr 7, 2016 - This Pin was discovered by Andrew Jennings. During his long association with Knoll he designed many important pieces of furniture, including the Grasshopper lounge chair and ottoman (1946), the Womb chair and ottoman (1948),[7] the Womb settee (1950), side and arm chairs (1948–1950), and his most famous Tulip or Pedestal group (1956), which featured side and arm chairs, dining, coffee and side tables, as well as a stool. Saarinen, who was the son of famed architect Eliel Saarinen, moved to America with his family in 1923. He had a close re­la­tion­ship with fel­low stu­dents Charles and Ray Eames, and be­came good friends with Flo­rence Knoll (née Schust)… He received the First Honor award of the American Institute of Architects twice, in 1955 and 1956, and their gold medal in 1962. His best-known works are the Gateway Arch and the TWA terminal at JFK Airport. He had three children. [19], In 1940, he received two first prizes together with Charles Eames in the furniture design competition of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. For the Yale hockey rink, Saarinen, avoiding the typical field house, achieved a unique and sympathetic sports building. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. [17] He was elected a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1954. American Masters: Eero Saarinen: The Architect Who Saw the Future DVD,Explore the life of Finnish-American modernist architectural giant Eero Saarinen (1910-1961), whose visionary buildings include National Historic Landmarks such as St. Louis' iconic Gateway Arch and the General Motors Technical Center in Michigan. This partnership was dissolved in 1947, and a new partnership of Saarinen, Saarinen and Associates was then formed that lasted until the elder Saarinen’s death. Saarinen then went on to complete his studies from the prestigious Yale School of Architecture in 1934. Eero Saarinen, born in 1910 in Kirkkonummi, Finland, as the son of the architect Eliel Saarinen, studied sculpture in 1929 and 1930 at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris before studying architecture at Yale University in New Haven until 1934. In this distinctive and memorable building, Saarinen presented a symbol of flight. He was the son of noted Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen. A Yale fellowship enabled him to travel to Europe. [9] A jury which did not include Saarinen had discarded Utzon's design in the first round; Saarinen reviewed the discarded designs, recognized a quality in Utzon's design, and ultimately assured the commission of Utzon.[9]. These include the Noyes dormitory at Vassar and Hill College House at the University of Pennsylvania as well as the Ingalls ice rink, Ezra Stiles & Morse Colleges at Yale University, the MIT Chapel and neighboring Kresge Auditorium at MIT and the University of Chicago Law School building and grounds. ASSA ABLOY is the global sponsor of Eero Saarinen: Shaping the Future. [26], The papers of Aline and Eero Saarinen, from 1906 to 1977,[27] were donated in 1973 to the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution (by Charles Alan, Aline Saarinen's brother and executor of her estate[28]). A prestigious talent emerges. Saarinen began studies in sculpture at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris, France, in September 1929. Saarinen designed the Kleinhans Music Hall in Buffalo, New York, together with his father, Eliel Saarinen. Eero Saarinen was born on August 20, 1910, to Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen and his second wife, Louise, on his father's 37th birthday. His most famous work is the TWA Flight Center, which represents the culmination of his previous designs and his genius for expressing the ultimate purpose of each building, what he called the "style for the job". They immigrated to the United States in 1923, when Eero was thirteen. The competition award was mistakenly sent to his father because both he and his father had entered the competition separately. He stayed an additional year in Helsinki working with the architect Jarl Eklund. [18] In 1962, he was posthumously awarded a gold medal by the American Institute of Architects. In 1962, Saarinen first appeared on television, discussing art. Eero died suddenly in 1961. He joined his father’s practice in Bloomfield Hills in 1938, and one year later their collaborative design—tranquil yet monumental—for the mall in Washington, D.C., won first prize in the Smithsonian Institution Gallery of Art competition. 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