Subsequently, Dr. Dogra appeared in Shri Mahesh Chandra's court as an expert witness (PW-5); his testimony took several sessions. President of the Indian National Congress, List of state visits made by Indira Gandhi, authorisation of the detonation of a nuclear device, suffered persecution and eventually expulsion, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India, Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration, List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government, "Rahul first in three generations with a world university degree", "19th November 2017: 100 years of Indira Gandhi. In this context, Gandhi was accused of formulating populist policies to suit her political needs.  The judge, however, rejected the more serious charges of bribery, laid against her in the case.. , Gandhi's approach to dealing with Sri Lanka's ethnic problems was initially accommodating. 1944) and Sanjay (b. Indira Nehru Gandhi vs. Shri Raj Narain and Anr. Muhammad Riduan, formerly known as K. Pathmanathan, embraced Islam in 2009 and converted all three of his children with Indira on April 2 the same year without her knowledge.  Businessmen who owned the banks were often accused of channeling the deposits into their own companies and ignoring priority sector lending.  Indira did, however, have an active part within the student life of the university, such as membership in the Oxford Majlis Asian Society. She often tried to organise women to involve themselves in politics. Indira tried to return to England through Portugal but was left stranded for nearly two months. As one writer said: "The Indian people were her children; members of her family were the only people capable of leading them. ", Gandhi formed her government with Morarji Desai as deputy Prime Minister and finance minister. His younger brother, Sanjay Gandhi, was a politician. ", Gandhi did not often discuss her gender, but she did involve herself in women's issues before becoming the prime minister. , During her time in Europe, Indira was plagued with ill-health and was constantly attended to by doctors. , After several futile negotiations, in June 1984, Gandhi ordered the Indian army to enter the Golden Temple to remove Bhindranwale and his supporters from the complex. The scheme comes under the control of the Ministry of Women and Child Development (WCD).  Yet despite this, many women saw Gandhi as a symbol for feminism and an image of women's power. Both Satwant and Kehar were sentenced to death and hanged in Delhi's Tihar Jail. , On 12 June 1975, the Allahabad High Court declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha in 1971 void on the grounds of electoral malpractice. The political economist, Jyotindra Das Gupta, cryptically questioned "...whether or not the real supporters of land-holders were in jail or in power? Gandhi declared the people of Indian origin settled in Africa as "Ambassadors of India".  After nationalisation, the oil majors such as the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), the Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and the Bharat Petroleum Corporation (BPCL) had to keep a minimum stock level of oil, to be supplied to the military when needed. During her premiership she formed friendships with many leaders such as West German chancellor, Willy Brandt and Austrian chancellor Bruno Kreisky. The bullets were matched with their respective weapons at the Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL) Delhi. Longowal said "Whenever the situation becomes ripe for settlement, some violent incident takes place. " Gandhi promised to reduce poverty by targeting the consumption levels of the poor and enact wide-ranging social and economic reforms. The resulting turbulence in the foreign exchange markets was accentuated further by the oil shock of 1973.  There was an increase in Indian economic and military co-operation with Iran during the 1970s. Indira Gandhi was India's third prime minister, serving from 1966 until 1984, when her life ended in assassination. Indira Gandhi, prime minister of India for sixteen years, was as charismatic as she was controversial–at once admired and criticized for her political judgements and actions. Indira Gandhi Scholarship for Single Girl Child 2020 | Eligibility, Awards, Application Form: Indira Gandhi Scholarship for Single Girl Child is a UGC system launched with the goal of empowering women in our country through educational methods. We don't want to take risks. , One of her legacies is supposed to be the systematic corruption of all parts of India's government from the executive to the judiciary due to her sense of insecurity. " Yet, she later forged close relations with Indian communists even while using the army to break the Naxalites. , Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru into a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad. Both were also involved in active politics in their life Times. Several books on Gandhi mention her interest in Joan of Arc. As an adult Gandhi became the prime minister, or leader, of India .  In 1982, Bhindranwale and approximately 200 armed followers moved into a guest house called the Guru Nanak Niwas near the Golden Temple. Gandhi was unhappy with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, but once again calculations involving relations with Pakistan and China kept her from criticising the Soviet Union harshly. She had learnt that he had converted to Islam and then converted all …  Gandhi's overtures to Muammar Gaddafi were rebuffed. A refugee crisis put pressure on her. Widespread atrocities were carried out during the emergency. The Indian Libertarian wrote that: "it would be difficult to find a more machiavellian leftist than Mrs Indira Gandhi ... for here is Machiavelli at its best in the person of a suave, charming and astute politician. Whither Indian Polity?. 2. “It's getting very frustrating because we are waiting for an end to this and that a solution will come, but nothing is happening. Indira Gandhi Essay is usually given to classes 7, 8, 9, and 10.  In response to this, Bhutto launched a massive campaign to make Pakistan a nuclear power. At the end of 1977, she was such a dominating figure in Indian politics that Congress party president D. K. Barooah had coined the phrase "India is Indira and Indira is India. She had been described to him as an 'Ogre', but he found her charming and easy to work with and they formed a close working relationship during her premiership in the 1980s.  The defeat of Pakistan in 1971 and the secession of East Pakistan as pro-India Bangladesh led to the collapse of the Mizo separatist movement. The other leaders of the Janata Party were Charan Singh, Raj Narain, George Fernandes and Atal Bihari Vajpayee.. The most prominent of the Kashmiri separatists, Sheikh Abdullah, had to recognise India's control over Kashmir in light of the new order in South Asia.  During Charan Singh's short time in office in the second half of 1979, inflation averaged 18.2%, compared to 6.5% during Gandhi's last year in office (1984).  Gandhi firmly tied Indian anti-imperialist interests in Africa to those of the Soviet Union.  ", On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi's Sikh bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, shot her with their service weapons in the garden of the prime minister's residence at 1 Safdarjung Road, New Delhi, allegedly in revenge for the Operation Bluestar.  In 2020 Gandhi was named by the Time magazine among world's 100 powerful women who defined the last century.  Despite India being officially part of the Non-Aligned Movement, she gave Indian foreign policy a tilt towards the Soviet bloc. The Gandhi faction, called Congress (R), lost its majority in the parliament but remained in power with the support of regional parties such as DMK. The outcome of the marriage resulted in two sons Neemli Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi. Athletics & apartheid. Indira Gandhi’s Political career started quite early in her life serving her father on officially as his personal assistant when he was the first Prime Minister of India in the 1950’s.  India was victorious in the resulting Siachen conflict against Pakistan. His mother, Indira Gandhi, was the former Prime Minister of India. , Gandhi inherited a tattered economy in her second term; harvest failures and a second oil shock in the late 1970s had caused inflation to rise again. In Self, Nation, Text in Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children, Neil Ten Kortenaar argues that “the widow, Indira Gandhi, quite literally threatens men with the loss of their manhood…in the form of forced sterilizations” and “castrations performed on all the Midnight’s Children” (Kortenaar 138). Their marriage lasted 18 years until he died of a heart attack in 1960. Her detractors accuse her of weakening State chief ministers and thereby weakening the federal structure, weakening the independence of the judiciary, and weakening her cabinet by vesting power in her secretariat and her sons. As early as 1969, critics had begun accusing her of insincerity and machiavellianism.  India under Gandhi also hosted the 1983 Commonwealth Heads of Government summit in New Delhi.  The progressive Arab regimes in Egypt, Syria, and Algeria chose to remain neutral, while the conservative pro-American Arab monarchies in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates openly supported Pakistan. These steps culminated in party president S. Nijalingappa expelling her from the party for indiscipline.  The government responded by taking steps to liberalise the economy and agreeing to the devaluation of the currency in return for the restoration of foreign aid. ", It was said that during the Emergency he virtually ran India along with his friends, especially Bansi Lal. , Gandhi questioned the continued existence of a privy purse for former rulers of princely states.  India under Gandhi was alleged to have supported the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) militants in the 1980s to put pressure on Jayewardene to abide by Indian interests. " In the 1980s, Gandhi was accused of "betraying socialism" after the beginning of Operation Forward, an attempt at economic reform.  She justified the imposition of the state of emergency in 1975 in the name of the socialist mission of the Congress. 5) She married to Firoz Gandhi and had two sons Sanjay Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi. Indira saw justice as on her side when the Federal Court ordered the police in 2018 to find and return Prasana, stolen away by her ex-husband just before he converted to Islam in 2009.  Gandhi declared inflation the gravest of problems in 1974 (at 25.2%) and devised a severe anti-inflation program. The government targeted growth at 5.7% while stating as its goals, "growth with stability and progressive achievement of self-reliance. However, the two parents were estranged from each other for much of their marriage. The alliance parties later merged to form the Janata Party under the guidance of Gandhian leader, Jayaprakash Narayan. Sanjay Gandhi Children Varun Gandhi was born in Delhi on 13 March 1980 to Sanjay Gandhi and Maneka Gandhi. Indira was the only child to her parents as her younger brother died in infancy. This was characterised by servility and sycophancy towards the family which later turned into a hereditary succession of Gandhi family members to power. Dr. Dogra extracted bullets to establish the make of the weapons used and to match each weapon with the bullets recovered by ballistic examination. Indian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom Braj Kumar Nehru said Gandhi's conviction would not harm her political career. Also, she established her worth and became the strongest prime as well as president of the Congress party. ", India's relationship with Pakistan remained strained following the Shimla Accord in 1972. Essay on Indira Gandhi in English for Class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,.100 words, 200 words, 300 words essay on Indira Gandhi for children's and school students. Indira Nehru Gandhi vs. Shri Raj Narain and Anr.  The economy managed to recover in 1966 and ended up growing at 4.1% over 1966–1969. on 7 November 1975. Indira Gandhi Biography For Students, Children Kids4Fun October 30, 2020 Biographies for Kids Leave a comment 7,363 Views Indira Gandhi was the first women Prime Minister and an important world stateswoman.  The shooting occurred as she was walking past a wicket gate guarded by the two men.  Indira had to take the entrance examination twice, having failed at her first attempt with a poor performance in Latin. She said: "There is a lot of talk about our government not being clean, but from our experience the situation was very much worse when [opposition] parties were forming governments. , The Congress Party under Gandhi swept back into power in January 1980. At the beginning of her first term as prime minister, she was widely criticised by the media and the opposition as a "Goongi goodiya" (Hindi for a "dumb doll" or "puppet") of the Congress party bosses who had orchestrated her election and then tried to constrain her. , Having been re-elected in 1971 on a nationalisation platform, Gandhi proceeded to nationalise the coal, steel, copper, refining, cotton textiles, and insurance industries. , During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, foreign-owned private oil companies had refused to supply fuel to the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force. Today, Mizoram is considered one of the most peaceful states in the north-east. After Gandhi ordered military action in the Golden Temple in Operation Blue Star, her own bodyguards and Sikh nationalists assassinated her on 31 October 1984. South Asian History and Culture 1.4 (2010): 480–493.  On a live TV show Rajiv Gandhi said of the carnage, "When a big tree falls, the earth shakes.  Nepal and Bhutan remained aligned with India, while in 1975, after years of building up support, Gandhi incorporated Sikkim into India, after a referendum in which a majority of Sikkimese voted to join India. I shall continue to serve until my last breath and when I die, I can say, that every drop of my blood will invigorate India and strengthen it ... Even if I died in the service of the nation, I would be proud of it. , The principle of equal pay for equal work for both men and women was enshrined in the Indian Constitution under the Gandhi administration. I have to do a great deal of touring in order to set up the Congress Party Women's Section, and am on numerous important committees. Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: [ˈɪndɪɾa ˈɡaːndʱi] (listen); née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. India emerged victorious following the war with Pakistan to become the dominant power of South Asia.  U.S. President Richard Nixon disliked Gandhi personally, referring to her as a "witch" and a "clever fox" in his private communication with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. Rahul i… Indira also planned to carry out a justice walk from Sungai Petani, Kedah to the Prime Minister's Office in Putrajaya, which has been put on hold due to the pandemic.  After reaching a high diplomatic point in the aftermath of Nehru's role in the Suez Crisis, India's isolation from Africa was complete when only four nations—Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and Libya—supported her during the Sino-Indian War in 1962. India maintained cordial relations with most of the members during Gandhi's time in power. Indira Gandhi was a famous Indian politician and the third Prime Minister of India. However, they received a final setback when many of them were defeated by huge margins. On their part, the ASEAN nations were unhappy with Gandhi's sympathy for the Viet Cong and India's strong links with the USSR. Sanjay Gandhi was married to Maneka Gandhi, who is an Indian politician. " Her campaign slogan, Garibi Hatao ('Remove Poverty'), has become an often used motto of the Indian National Congress Party. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. , The measures of the emergency regime was able to halt the economic trouble of the early to mid-1970s, which had been marred by harvest failures, fiscal contraction, and the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchanged rates. , Being at the forefront of Indian politics for decades, Gandhi left a powerful but controversial legacy on Indian politics. Despite the setbacks, Indira has not given up hope of meeting her lost daughter. M. Indira Gandhi speaks at a press conference in Kuala Lumpur October 9, 2020. " J. Barkley Rosser Jr. wrote that "some have even seen the declaration of emergency rule in 1975 as a move to suppress [leftist] dissent against Gandhi's policy shift to the right. The situation was normalised in the years following the war after Abdullah agreed to an accord with Gandhi, by giving up the demand for a plebiscite in return for a special autonomous status for Kashmir.  Gandhi was unhappy with the lack of support from India's Arab allies during the war with Pakistan, while the Shah was apprehensive at the growing friendship between Pakistan and Arab states of the Persian Gulf, especially Saudi Arabia, and the growing influence of Islam in Pakistani society. Indira Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend. The Soviets became the main arms supplier during the Gandhi years by offering cheap credit and transactions in rupees rather than in dollars. In the Year 2010, the Central Government has introduced the maternity benefits program in India. The Indian government also started considering the possibility of bringing Indians settled in Africa within the framework of its policy goals to help recover its declining geo-strategic influence. , Within a few months, President's rule was imposed on the two opposition party ruled states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu thereby bringing the entire country under direct Central rule or by governments led by the ruling Congress party. The program was supervised and staffed by the Indian National Congress party. Step By Step Guide to Apply, Online Application Form PDF and Guidelines of Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY), Maternity Nutrition Scheme 2021.  The programs created through Garibi Hatao, though carried out locally, were funded and developed by the Central Government in New Delhi. The nationalisation drive not only helped to increase household savings, but it also provided considerable investments in the informal sector, in small- and medium-sized enterprises, and in agriculture, and contributed significantly to regional development and to the expansion of India's industrial and agricultural base.  The men dropped their weapons and surrendered. ", Gandhi felt guilty about her inability to fully devote her time to her children. He was a politician and union minister during the 1980s.  The Assassination of Mujibur Rahman in 1975 led to the establishment of Islamist military regimes that sought to distance the country from India. "Indira Gandhi had since long been planning for an attack on Darbar Sahib..." Harjinder Singh Dilgeer (2012). Suckered us ... this woman suckered us. Fiscal problems associated with the war with Pakistan in 1965, along with a drought-induced food crisis that spawned famines, had plunged India into the sharpest recession since independence. In 2010, Oxford honoured her further by selecting her as one of the ten Oxasians, illustrious Asian graduates from the University of Oxford.  There was an emphasis on tightening public expenditures, greater efficiency of the state-owned enterprises (SOE), which Gandhi qualified as a "sad thing", and on stimulating the private sector through deregulation and liberation of the capital market. She noted that her main problem in office was how to balance her political duties with tending to her children, and "stressed that motherhood was the most important part of her life. They had been raised as Hindus. She saw her own success as a woman, and also noted that: "Given the opportunity to develop, capable Indian women have come to the top at once. The prevailing rumour was that he intended to dislodge Gandhi, and the trio stood to prevent that. Since Gandhi had lost her seat in the election, the defeated Congress party appointed Yashwantrao Chavan as their parliamentary party leader.  This was denounced as a "despicable act" by China. That same month, Abdul Hamid also said that the police were looking for an amicable solution where both Indira and Muhammad Riduan will get the benefit of “some form of joint custody”. Gandhi saw this test as Chinese nuclear intimidation and promoted Nehru's views to establish India's stability and security interests independent from those of the nuclear superpowers. , Gandhi's main legacy was standing firm in the face of American pressure to defeat Pakistan and turn East Pakistan into independent Bangladesh. Indian Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Year : 2009, Volume : 7, Issue : 4. It was passed in the Lok Sabha but fell short of the two-thirds majority in the Rajya Sabha by a single vote. The army used heavy artillery, including tanks, in the action code-named Operation Blue Star. Pankaj Vohra noted that "even the late prime minister's critics would concede that the maximum number of legislations of social significance was brought about during her tenure ... [and that] she lives in the hearts of millions of Indians who shared her concern for the poor and weaker sections and who supported her politics. Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer stated that she attacked the temple complex to present herself as a great hero in order to win the general elections planned towards the end of 1984. Indira Gandhi was born Indira Priyadarshini Nehru on 19 November 1917, in Allahabad, British India, to Jawaharlal Nehru and Kamala Nehru.  A year later, however, she had to leave university to attend to her ailing mother in Europe.  The couple had two sons, Rajiv Gandhi (born 1944) and Sanjay Gandhi (born 1946).. , Despite the victory against Pakistan, the Congress government faced numerous problems during this term. Chief among them was her decision to support V. V. Giri, the independent candidate rather than the official Congress party candidate Neelam Sanjiva Reddy for the vacant position of president of India.  Relations only began to improve following Gandhi's endorsement of the ZOPFAN declaration and the disintegration of the SEATO alliance in the aftermath of Pakistani and American defeats in the region.  At the same time, Chinese influence in Africa had declined owing to its incessant quarrels with the Soviet Union. By following this goal, the government decided and implemented Indira Gandhi Single Girl Child Scholarships to offset the direct costs of high education women … He died in a plane crash when Varun was three months old in June 1980. ", "BBC On This Day | 12 | 1975: Gandhi found guilty of corruption", "A Page From The Past: All You Need To Know About Emergency Imposed By Indira Gandhi Government", "Cong blames Sanjay Gandhi for Emergency 'excesses, "Emergency 'propagandist' who banned Kishore Kumar songs", "How Fernandes ran a high-voltage campaign for Chikkamagaluru bypoll", "Tale of two hijackers: One is Congress candidate, other most wanted", "1980: Gandhi returned by landslide vote", "Indira Gandhi becomes Indian prime minister – Jan 19, 1966 – History.com", "Last speech of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi prior to her assassination", "Remembering Indira Gandhi on her 29th death anniversary", "India Hangs Two Sikhs Convicted In Assassination of Indira Gandhi", "32 years of Indira Gandhi assassination, anti-Sikh riots: All you need to know", "Indira Gandhi's assassination sparks a fearful round of sectarian violence", "Indira Gandhi assassination trial: Satwant Singh and Kehar Singh hanged", Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues With Sikh Militants, We the eyeballs : Cover Story – India Today, "HS Phoolka releases video of Rajiv Gandhi's speech justifying 1984 riots", "Watch: The shocking video where Rajiv Gandhi justified 1984 anti-Sikh riots \website=dnaindia.com", Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira, BBC News, 29 June 2005, "BBC NEWS | South Asia | Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira", Former PM Indira Gandhi honoured with Bangladesh's highest award, The Economic Times, 25 July 2011, "Indira – terror personified or goddess? It transformed the country from a nation heavily reliant on imported grains, and prone to famine, to one largely able to feed itself, and becoming successful in achieving its goal of food security.  On average, inflation in India had remained below 7% through the 1950s and 1960s.  However, the Janata government's home minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, ordered her arrest along with Sanjay Gandhi on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. In 1999, Indira Gandhi was named "Woman of the Millennium" in an online poll organised by the BBC. In 1944, Indira and Feroze had their first son, Rajiv. This despite a High Court ruling in 2010 granting full custody of all three children from their marriage to Indira. " Critics also accused Gandhi of choosing to "talk left and act right", referring to her concurrent pro-business decisions and endeavours. His father, Feroze Gandhi, was an Indian politician. After this, public sector bank branch deposits increased by approximately 800 percent; advances took a huge jump by 11,000 percent. She was a student at the Modern School in Delhi, St Cecilia's and St Mary's Christian convent schools in Allahabad, the International School of Geneva, the Ecole Nouvelle in Bex, and the Pupils' Own School in Poona and Bombay, which is affiliated with the University of Mumbai. " Another historian recounts Indira's comparison of herself to Joan of Arc: "Indira developed a fascination for Joan of Arc, telling her aunt, 'Someday I am going to lead my people to freedom just as Joan of Arc did'! Gandhi was known for her anti-communist stance in the 1950s, with Meghnad Desai even describing her as "the scourge of [India's] Communist Party. She announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court and insisted that the conviction did not undermine her position. 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